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Department ofBotany



No. 366
June 2015


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In This Issue


Carnivorous Plants and Their Pollinators


The week of June 15-21 has been designated as Pollinator Week to mark a necessary step toward addressing the urgent issue of declining pollinator and plant populations. Each year the Pollinator Partnership, along with a wide range of partners (including federal agencies, non-profits, and for-profits), design and distribute an educational pollinator poster to promote Pollinator Week. The posters are one of the most popular outreach material items offered.

This year the 2015 Pollinator Week poster features illustrations of six native carnivorous plants and their pollinators with the theme "They Don't Eat Their Pollinators." Carnivorous plants are well adapted to the environment of nutrient-poor soils by feeding on insects. But how do they attract both pollinator and prey? The poster's website features information about the plants, the pollinators, and the artist's creative process.

They Don't Eat Their Pollinators Included among the illustrations is the two-spotted bumble bee, Bombus bimaculatus, pollinating a white-topped pitcher plant, Sarracenia leucophylla, a threatened carnivorous plant found in seepage areas and savanna bogs of southeastern Mississippi and western Florida. The leaves of the plant take the form of a pitcher. Insects are attracted by the color, scent, and nectar-like secretions on the lip of the pitchers. Inside the pitcher are downward pointing hairs that make retreat by captured prey challenging. The bottom of the pitcher is filled with fluid containing digestive enzymes and bacteria. The flowers, held singly on long stems, reward pollinators with pollen and nectar a month before the plants produce the carnivorous pitchers.

The Pollinator Partnership is the largest non-profit organization in the world dedicated to the protection and promotion of pollinators and their ecosystems. It manages the North American Pollinator Protection Campaign (NAPPC), a consortium of more than 120 affiliated organizations, working to implement, promote and support a clear, continent-wide coordinated action plan to coordinate projects in the areas of pollinator research, education and awareness, conservation and restoration. The National Museum of Natural History (NMNH) has been a partner of NAPPC since its inception in 1999, and NMNH conservation biologist Gary Krupnick serves on the NAPPC Steering Committee. Krupnick led the scientific advisory team in overseeing the production and scientific content of the 2015 Pollinator Week poster.

NMNH and other members of NAPPC will be hosting events at their institutions to mark Pollinator Week. NMNH will feature a variety of public programs including lectures and family friendly activities that will focus on plants and their pollinators during the week of June 15. Be sure to check the 2015 Pollinator Week map and events for the latest information.


Current Literature


Abdullah, W.N.Z.Z., Apan, A.A., Maraseni, T.N., and Le Brocque, A.F. 2014. Spectral discrimination of bulloak (Allocasuarina luehmannii) and associated woodland for habitat mapping of the endangered bulloak jewel butterfly (Hypochrysops piceata) in southern Queensland. J. Appl. Remote Sens. 8:083561.

Addison, P.F.E., Flander, L.B., and Cook, C.N. 2015. Are we missing the boat? Current uses of long-term biological monitoring data in the evaluation and management of marine protected areas. J. Environ. Manage. 149:148-156.

Aguilar, M., Sierra, J., Ramirez, W., Vargas, O., Calle, Z., Vargas, W., Murcia, C., Aronson, J., and Cataño, J.I.B. 2015. Toward a post-conflict Colombia: restoring to the future. Restor. Ecol. 23(1):4-6.

Aisyah, A., Shahrul, A.B., Zulfahmie, M.Z.M., Mastura, S.A.S., and Mokhtar, J. 2015. Deforestation analysis in Selangor, Malaysia between 1989 and 2011. J. Trop. For. Sci. 27(1):3-12.

Albert, E.M., Fernández-Beaskoetxea, S., Godoy, J.A., Tobler, U., Schmidt, B.R., and Bosch, J. 2015. Genetic management of an amphibian population after a chytridiomycosis outbreak. Conserv. Genet. 16(1):103-111.

Allen, B.L., Allen, L.R., and Leung, L.K.P. 2015. Interactions between two naturalised invasive predators in Australia: are feral cats suppressed by dingoes? Biol. Invasions 17(2):761-776.

Amalfitano, S., Coci, M., Corno, G., and Luna, G.M. 2015. A microbial perspective on biological invasions in aquatic ecosystems. Hydrobiologia 746(1):13-22.

Andrello, M., Mouillot, D., Somot, S., Thuiller, W., and Manel, S. 2015. Additive effects of climate change on connectivity between marine protected areas and larval supply to fished areas. Divers. Distrib. 21(2):139-150.

Ashalakshmi, N.C., Nag, K.S.C., and Karanth, K.P. 2015. Molecules support morphology: species status of South Indian populations of the widely distributed Hanuman langur. Conserv. Genet. 16(1):43-58.

Aslan, C., Holmes, N., Tershy, B., Spatz, D., and Croll, D.A. 2015. Benefits to poorly studied taxa of conservation of bird and mammal diversity on islands. Conserv. Biol. 29(1):133-142.

Asmyhr, M.G., Linke, S., Hose, G., and Nipperess, D.A. 2014. Systematic conservation planning for groundwater ecosystems using phylogenetic diversity. PLoS ONE 9(12):e115132.

Athayde, E.A., Cancian, L.F., Verdade, L.M., and Morellato, L.P.C. 2015. Functional and phylogenetic diversity of scattered trees in an agricultural landscape: implications for conservation. Agricult. Ecosyst. & Environ. 199:272-281.

Aunins, A., Petty, J., King, T., Schilz, M., and Mazik, P. 2015. River mainstem thermal regimes influence population structuring within an appalachian brook trout population. Conserv. Genet. 16(1):15-29.

Avolio, M.L., Chang, C.C., Weis, J.J., and Smith, M.D. 2015. The effect of genotype richness and genomic dissimilarity of Andropogon gerardii on invasion resistance and productivity. Plant Ecol. Divers. 8(1):61-71.

Bajer, P.G., and Sorensen, P.W. 2015. Effects of common carp on phosphorus concentrations, water clarity, and vegetation density: a whole system experiment in a thermally stratified lake. Hydrobiologia 746(1):303-311.

Banks, N.C., Paini, D.R., Bayliss, K.L., and Hodda, M. 2015. The role of global trade and transport network topology in the human-mediated dispersal of alien species. Ecol. Lett. 18(2):188-199.

Bargmann, T., and Kirkpatrick, J. 2015. Transition from heathland to scrub in south-eastern Tasmania: extent of change since the 1970s, floristic depletion and management implications. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(2):213-228.

Barni, P.E., Fearnside, P.M., and Graça, P.M.L.D. 2015. Simulating deforestation and carbon loss in Amazonia: impacts in Brazil's Roraima State from reconstructing Highway BR-319 (Manaus-Porto Velho). Environ. Manage. 55(2):259-278.

Beans, C.M., and Roach, D.A. 2015. An invasive plant alters phenotypic selection on the vegetative growth of a native congener. Am. J. Bot. 102(2):217-224.

Beechie, T.J., Pess, G.R., Imaki, H., Martin, A., Alvarez, J., and Goodman, D.H. 2015. Comparison of potential increases in juvenile salmonid rearing habitat capacity among alternative restoration scenarios, Trinity River, California. Restor. Ecol. 23(1):75-84.

Beissinger, S.R. 2015. Endangered species recovery criteria: reconciling conflicting views. BioScience 65(2):121-122.

Belbachir, F., Pettorelli, N., Wacher, T., Belbachir-Bazi, A., and Durant, S.M. 2015. Monitoring rarity: the critically endangered Saharan cheetah as a flagship species for a threatened ecosystem. PLoS ONE 10(1):e0115136.

Bell, J.J., McGrath, E., Biggerstaff, A., Bates, T., Cárdenas, C.A., and Bennett, H. 2015. Global conservation status of sponges. Conserv. Biol. 29(1):42-53.

Bennett, D.M., Dudley, T.L., Cooper, S.D., and Sweet, S.S. 2015. Ecology of the invasive New Zealand mud snail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Hydrobiidae), in a mediterranean-climate stream system. Hydrobiologia 746(1):375-399.

Bennett, E.L. 2015. Legal ivory trade in a corrupt world and its impact on African elephant populations. Conserv. Biol. 29(1):54-60.

Berecha, G., Aerts, R., Muys, B., and Honnay, O. 2015. Fragmentation and management of Ethiopian moist evergreen forest drive compositional shifts of insect communities visiting wild Arabica coffee flowers. Environ. Manage. 55(2):373-382.

Berger, J., Buuveibaatar, B., and Mishra, C. 2015. The cashmere connection, biodiversity, and climate: response to von Wehrden et al. 2014. Conserv. Biol. 29(1):290-292.

Bergh, N.G., and Helme, N.A. 2014. A new species of Berkheya (Asteraceae, Arctotideae) from the Northern Cape, South Africa. Bothalia 44(1):123.

Bernard, E., Paese, A., Machado, R.B., and Aguiar, L.M.D. 2014. Blown in the wind: bats and wind farms in Brazil. Nat. Conservacao 12(2):106-111.

Bian, F.H., Pang, Y.J., Wang, Z., Liu, C.L., and Zhuang, S.H. 2015. Genetic diversity of the rare plant Anemone shikokiana (Makino) Makino (Ranunculaceae) inferred from AFLP markers. Plant Syst. Evol. 301(2):677-684.

Bidegain, G., Bárcena, J.F., García, A., and Juanes, J.A. 2015. Predicting coexistence and predominance patterns between the introduced Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) and the European native clam (Ruditapes decussatus). Estuarine Coast. Shelf Sci. 152:162-172.

Bisht, V.K., Kuniyal, C.P., Nautiyal, B.P., and Prasad, P. 2015. Integrated analysis of the trees and associated under-canopy species in a subalpine forest of western Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India. J. Mt. Sci. 12(1):154-165.

Bland, L.M., Collen, B., Orme, C.D.L., and Bielby, J. 2015. Predicting the conservation status of data-deficient species. Conserv. Biol. 29(1):250-259.

Boanares, D., and de Azevedo, C.S. 2014. The use of nucleation techniques to restore the environment: a bibliometric analysis. Nat. Conservacao 12(2):93-98.

Bobeldyk, A.M., Rüegg, J., and Lamberti, G.A. 2015. Freshwater hotspots of biological invasion are a function of species-pathway interactions. Hydrobiologia 746(1):363-373.

Boltovskoy, D., and Correa, N. 2015. Ecosystem impacts of the invasive bivalve Limnoperna fortunei (golden mussel) in South America. Hydrobiologia 746(1):81-95.

Bonnet, V., Fort, N., Dentant, C., Bonet, R., Salomez, P., and Till-Bottraud, I. 2015. A methodology for monitoring rare plant species designed by a network of conservation stakeholders. Acta Bot. Gallica 162(1):27-36.

Borini, J.F., Petrucci, B.B., Krohling, W., Rossi, J.L., Santos, M.R.D., and Ferreira, P.D. 2014. Site fidelity and movement of Chelonoidis carbonaria (Spix, 1824) (Testudinidae) in cocoa plantations in southeastern Brazil. Braz. J. Biol. 74(3):135-141.

Boss, R.L., and da Silva, J.M.C. 2014. Core and transient species in an Amazonian savanna bird assemblage. Rev. Bras. Ornitol. 22(4):372-380.

Boulanger, J., and Stenhouse, G.B. 2014. The impact of roads on the demography of grizzly bears in Alberta. PLoS ONE 9(12):e115535.

Bovy, H.C., Barrios-O'Neill, D., Emmerson, M.C., Aldridge, D.C., and Dick, J.T.A. 2015. Predicting the predatory impacts of the "demon shrimp'' Dikerogammarus haemobaphes, on native and previously introduced species. Biol. Invasions 17(2):597-607.

Brambilla, M., Bergero, V., Bassi, E., and Falco, R. 2015. Current and future effectiveness of Natura 2000 network in the central Alps for the conservation of mountain forest owl species in a warming climate. Eur. J. Wildlife Res. 61(1):35-44.

Branchini, S., Pensa, F., Neri, P., Tonucci, B.M., Mattielli, L., Collavo, A., Sillingardi, M.E., Piccinetti, C., Zaccanti, F., and Goffredo, S. 2015. Using a citizen science program to monitor coral reef biodiversity through space and time. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(2):319-336.

Brandt, J.S., Butsic, V., Schwab, B., Kuemmerle, T., and Radeloff, V.C. 2015. The relative effectiveness of protected areas, a logging ban, and sacred areas for old-growth forest protection in southwest China. Biol. Conserv. 181:1-8.

Braz, M.I.G., Portela, R., Cosme, L.H.M., Marques, V.G.C., and de Mattos, E.A. 2014. Germination niche breadth differs in two co-occurring palms of the Atlantic Rainforest. Nat. Conservacao 12(2):124-128.

Brodie, J.F., Giordano, A.J., and Ambu, L. 2015. Differential responses of large mammals to logging and edge effects. Mamm. Biol. 80(1):7-13.

Brodie, J.F., Giordano, A.J., Dickson, B., Hebblewhite, M., Bernard, H., Mohd-Azlan, J., Anderson, J., and Ambu, L. 2015. Evaluating multispecies landscape connectivity in a threatened tropical mammal community. Conserv. Biol. 29(1):122-132.

Brodie, J.F., Giordano, A.J., Zipkin, E.F., Bernard, H., Mohd-Azlan, J., and Ambu, L. 2015. Correlation and persistence of hunting and logging impacts on tropical rainforest mammals. Conserv. Biol. 29(1):110-121.

Brown, C., and Morgan, J. 2015. Predator recognition and responses in the endangered Macquarie perch (Macquaria australasica). Mar. Freshwater Res. 66(2):127-134.

Bruckerhoff, L., Havel, J., and Knight, S. 2015. Survival of invasive aquatic plants after air exposure and implications for dispersal by recreational boats. Hydrobiologia 746(1):113-121.

Brum, F.T., Debastiani, V.J., Loyola, R., and Duarte, L.D.S. 2014. Clade-specific impacts of human land use on primates. Nat. Conservacao 12(2):144-149.

Brundu, G. 2015. Plant invaders in European and Mediterranean inland waters: profiles, distribution, and threats. Hydrobiologia 746(1):61-79.

Burgess, M.D., Bellamy, P.E., Gillings, S., Noble, D.G., Grice, P.V., and Conway, G.J. 2015. The impact of changing habitat availability on population trends of woodland birds associated with early successional plantation woodland. Bird Study 62(1):39-55.

Buschke, F.T. 2015. The startup culture of conservation entrepreneurship. Conserv. Biol. 29(1):300-302.

Bustam, B.M., Dixon, K., and Bunn, E. 2014. Proliferation and harvesting of secondary protocorms as a novel means for improving propagation of terrestrial orchids. Aust. J. Bot. 62(7):614-621.

Callicrate, T., Dikow, R., Thomas, J.W., Mullikin, J.C., Jarvis, E.D., Fleischer, R.C., and NISC Comparative Sequencing Program. 2014. Genomic resources for the endangered Hawaiian honeycreepers. BMC Genomics 15:1098.

Calonje, M., Morales, G., López-Gallego, C., and Roldán, F.J. 2015. A taxonomic revision of Zamia montana and Zamia oligodonta, with notes on their conservation status. Phytotaxa 192(4):279-289.

Campbell, S.P., Frair, J.L., Gibbs, J.P., and Rundell, R.J. 2015. Coexistence of the endangered, endemic Chittenango ovate amber snail (Novisuccinea chittenangoensis) and a non-native competitor. Biol. Invasions 17(2):711-723.

Capelle, P.M., McCallum, E.S., and Balshine, S. 2015. Aggression and sociality: conflicting or complementary traits of a successful invader? Behaviour 152(2):127-146.

Caravaggi, A., Montgomery, W.I., and Reid, N. 2015. Range expansion and comparative habitat use of insular, congeneric lagomorphs: invasive European hares Lepus europaeus and endemic Irish hares Lepus timidus hibernicus. Biol. Invasions 17(2):687-698.

Carlos, L.A., Barbosa, N.P.U., Moulton, T.P., and Creed, J.C. 2015. Ecological Niche Model used to examine the distribution of an invasive, non-indigenous coral. Mar. Environ. Res. 103:115-124.

Carpio, A.J., Castro-López, J., Guerrero-Casado, J., Ruiz-Aizpurua, L., Vicente, J., and Tortosa, F.S. 2014. Effect of wild ungulate density on invertebrates in a Mediterranean ecosystem. Anim. Biodivers. Conserv. 37(2):115-125.

Carswell, F.E., Mason, N.W.H., Overton, J.M., Price, R., Burrows, L.E., and Allen, R.B. 2015. Restricting new forests to conservation lands severely constrains carbon and biodiversity gains in New Zealand. Biol. Conserv. 181:206-218.

Caruso, N., Guerisoli, M., Vidal, E.M.L., Castillo, D., Casanave, E.B., and Lucherini, M. 2015. Modelling the ecological niche of an endangered population of Puma concolor: first application of the GNESFA method to an elusive carnivore. Ecol. Model. 297:11-19.

Cassey, P., and Hogg, C.J. 2015. Escaping captivity: the biological invasion risk from vertebrate species in zoos. Biol. Conserv. 181:18-26.

Castro, I.J., and Michalski, F. 2014. Effects of logging on bats in tropical forests. Nat. Conservacao 12(2):99-105.

Caudill, S.A., DeClerck, F.J.A., and Husband, T.P. 2015. Connecting sustainable agriculture and wildlife conservation: does shade coffee provide habitat for mammals? Agricult. Ecosyst. & Environ. 199:85-93.

Cavarzere, V., da Costa, T.V.V., Benedicto, G.A., Moreira-Lima, L., and Silveira, L.F. 2014. Continued bird surveys in southeastern coastal Brazilian Atlantic forests and the importance of conserving elevational gradients. Rev. Bras. Ornitol. 22(4):381-407.

Chakraborty, R., Nahmo, L.T., Dutta, P.K., Srivastava, T., Mazumdar, K., and Dorji, D. 2015. Status, abundance, and habitat associations of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) in Pangchen Valley, Arunachal Pradesh, India. Mammalia 79(1):25-32.

Charlton-Robb, K., Taylor, A., and McKechnie, S. 2015. Population genetic structure of the Burrunan dolphin (Tursiops australis) in coastal waters of south-eastern Australia: conservation implications. Conserv. Genet. 16(1):195-207.

Charrier, A., Correa, C., Castro, C., and Méndez, M.A. 2015. A new species of Alsodes (Anura: Alsodidae) from Altos de Cantillana, central Chile. Zootaxa 3915(4):540-550.

Chen, X.Y., Wang, X.Y., Jiao, J., and Schmid, B. 2015. Complementarity effects do not necessarily result in significant transgressive over-performance in mixtures. Biol. Invasions 17(2):529-535.

Chollet, S., Bergman, C., Gaston, A.J., and Martin, J.L. 2015. Long-term consequences of invasive deer on songbird communities: going from bad to worse? Biol. Invasions 17(2):777-790.

Chown, S.L., Hodgins, K.A., Griffin, P.C., Oakeshott, J.G., Byrne, M., and Hoffmann, A.A. 2015. Biological invasions, climate change and genomics. Evol. Appl. 8(1):23-46.

Clee, P.R.S., Abwe, E.E., Ambahe, R.D., Anthony, N.M., Fotso, R., Locatelli, S., Maisels, F., Mitchell, M.W., Morgan, B.J., Pokempner, A.A., and Gonder, M.K. 2015. Chimpanzee population structure in Cameroon and Nigeria is associated with habitat variation that may be lost under climate change. BMC Evol. Biol. 15:2-13.

Clements, G.R., Lynam, A.J., Gaveau, D., Yap, W.L., Lhota, S., Goosem, M., Laurance, S., and Laurance, W.F. 2014. Where and how are roads endangering mammals in Southeast Asia's forests? PLoS ONE 9(12):e115376.

Clements, T., and Milner-Gulland, E.J. 2015. Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia. Conserv. Biol. 29(1):78-87.

Cochran-Biederman, J.L., Wyman, K.E., French, W.E., and Loppnow, G.L. 2015. Identifying correlates of success and failure of native freshwater fish reintroductions. Conserv. Biol. 29(1):175-186.

Cope, R.C., Pollett, P.K., Lanyon, J.M., and Seddon, J.M. 2015. Indirect detection of genetic dispersal (movement and breeding events) through pedigree analysis of dugong populations in southern Queensland, Australia. Biol. Conserv. 181:91-101.

Cornwall, C.E., and Eddy, T.D. 2015. Effects of near-future ocean acidification, fishing, and marine protection on a temperate coastal ecosystem. Conserv. Biol. 29(1):207-215.

Crafton, R.E. 2015. Modeling invasion risk for coastal marine species utilizing environmental and transport vector data. Hydrobiologia 746(1):349-362.

Cruz, V.P., Vera, M., Mendonça, F.F., Pardo, B.G., Martinez, P., Oliveira, C., and Foresti, F. 2015. First identification of interspecies hybridization in the freshwater stingrays Potamotrygon motoro and P. falkneri (Myliobatiformes, Potamotrygonidae). Conserv. Genet. 16(1):241-245.

Cumberlidge, N., Klaus, S., Meyer, K.S., and Koppin, J.C. 2015. New collections of freshwater crabs from northern Madagascar, with the description of a new species of Foza Reed & Cumberlidge, 2006 (Brachyura, Potamonautidae), and comments on their conservation status. Eur. J. Taxon. 109:1-15.

Cumming, S.G., Drever, C.R., Houle, M., Cosco, J., Racine, P., Bayne, E., and Schmiegelow, F.K.A. 2015. A gap analysis of tree species representation in the protected areas of the Canadian boreal forest: applying a new assemblage of digital Forest Resource Inventory data. Can. J. Forest Res. 45(2):163-173.

Daga, V.S., Skóra, F., Padial, A.A., Abilhoa, V., Gubiani, É.A., and Vitule, J.R.S. 2015. Homogenization dynamics of the fish assemblages in Neotropical reservoirs: comparing the roles of introduced species and their vectors. Hydrobiologia 746(1):327-347.

Darling, E.S. 2015. Use of double-blind peer review to increase author diversity. Conserv. Biol. 29(1):297-299.

Davis, D.J., Wieman, A.C., and Berendzen, P.B. 2015. The influence of historical and contemporary landscape variables on the spatial genetic structure of the rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum) in tributaries of the upper Mississippi River. Conserv. Genet. 16(1):167-179.

Davis, K., Kragt, M., Gelcich, S., Schilizzi, S., and Pannell, D. 2015. Accounting for enforcement costs in the spatial allocation of marine zones. Conserv. Biol. 29(1):226-237.

Dawson, J., Oppel, S., Cuthbert, R.J., Holmes, N., Bird, J.P., Butchart, S.H.M., Spatz, D.R., and Tershy, B. 2015. Prioritizing islands for the eradication of invasive vertebrates in the United Kingdom overseas territories. Conserv. Biol. 29(1):143-153.

de Araújo, W.S., Tscharntke, T., and Almeida-Neto, M. 2015. Global effects of land use intensity on the impoverishment of insect herbivore assemblages. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(2):271-285.

de Oliveira, I.A.P., Norris, D., and Michalski, F. 2015. Anthropogenic and seasonal determinants of giant otter sightings along waterways in the northern Brazilian Amazon. Mamm. Biol. 80(1):39-46.

De Zan, L.R., Battisti, C., and Carpaneto, G.M. 2014. Bird and beetle assemblages in relict beech forests of central Italy: a multi-taxa approach to assess the importance of dead wood in biodiversity conservation. Community Ecol. 15(2):235-245.

Del Fabbro, C., and Prati, D. 2015. The relative importance of immediate allelopathy and allelopathic legacy in invasive plant species. Basic Appl. Ecol. 16(1):28-35.

Del Vecchio, S., Pizzo, L., and Buffa, G. 2015. The response of plant community diversity to alien invasion: evidence from a sand dune time series. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(2):371-392.

Dickie, I.A., St John, M.G., Yeates, G.W., Morse, C.W., Bonner, K.I., Orwin, K., and Peltzer, D.A. 2014. Belowground legacies of Pinus contorta invasion and removal result in multiple mechanisms of invasional meltdown. AoB Plants 6:plu056.

Do, Y., Kim, J.Y., Lineman, M., Kim, D.K., and Joo, G.J. 2015. Using internet search behavior to assess public awareness of protected wetlands. Conserv. Biol. 29(1):271-279.

Doak, D.F., Boor, G.K.H., Bakker, V.J., Morris, W.F., Louthan, A., Morrison, S.A., Stanley, A., and Crowder, L.B. 2015. Recommendations for improving recovery criteria under the US Endangered Species Act. BioScience 65(2):189-199.

Doherty, J.M., and Zedler, J.B. 2015. Increasing substrate heterogeneity as a bet-hedging strategy for restoring wetland vegetation. Restor. Ecol. 23(1):15-25.

Doherty, T.S., Bengsen, A.J., and Davis, R.A. 2014. A critical review of habitat use by feral cats and key directions for future research and management. Wildlife Res. 41(5):435-446.

Domínguez, D., Marín-Armijos, D., and Ruiz, C. 2015. Structure of dung beetle communities in an altitudinal gradient of neotropical dry forest. Neotrop. Entomol. 44(1):40-46.

Dong, S.K., and Sherman, R. 2015. Enhancing the resilience of coupled human and natural systems of alpine rangelands on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Rangeland J. 37(1):i-iii.

Dorgham, M.M., and Hamdy, R. 2015. The role of alien polychaetes along the Alexandria coast, Egypt. Int. J. Environ. Res. 9(1):141-150.

Downs, C.T., Pfeiffer, M., and Hart, L.A. 2014. Fifteen years of annual Cape Parrot Poicephalus robustus censuses: current population trends and conservation contributions. Ostrich 85(3):273-280.

Dragicevic, A.Z. 2015. Bayesian population dynamics of spreading species. Environ. Model Assess. 20(1):17-27.

Duncan, D.S., Krohn, A.L., Jackson, R.D., and Casler, M.D. 2015. Conservation implications of the introduction history of meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.) to the Driftless Area of the Upper Mississippi Valley, USA. Plant Ecol. Divers. 8(1):91-99.

Echeverría, C., Smith-Ramírez, C., Aronson, J., and Barrera-Cataño, J.I. 2015. Good news from Latin America and the Caribbean: national and international restoration networks are moving ahead. Restor. Ecol. 23(1):1-3.

Edmands, S. 2015. Blurred lines: scientific and legislative issues surrounding hybrids and conservation. Curr. Zool. 61(1):128-131.

Ely, C.V., Boldrini, I., and Bordignon, S.A.D. 2015. A new species of Hypericum (Hypericaceae) from Southern Brazil. Phytotaxa 192(4):290-295.

Emel, S.L., and Storfer, A. 2015. Landscape genetics and genetic structure of the southern torrent salamander, Rhyacotriton variegatus. Conserv. Genet. 16(1):209-221.

Ens, E.J., Pert, P., Clarke, P.A., Budden, M., Clubb, L., Doran, B., Douras, C., Gaikwad, J., Gott, B., Leonard, S., Locke, J., Packer, J., Turpin, G., and Wason, S. 2015. Indigenous biocultural knowledge in ecosystem science and management: review and insight from Australia. Biol. Conserv. 181:133-149.

Escudero, A., Palacio, S., Maestre, F.T., and Luzuriaga, A.L. 2015. Plant life on gypsum: a review of its multiple facets. Biol. Rev. 90(1):1-18.

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Sarukhán, J., Urquiza-Haas, T., Koleff, P., Carabias, J., Dirzo, R., Ezcurra, E., Cerdeira-Estrada, S., and Soberón, J. 2015. Strategic actions to value, conserve, and restore the natural capital of megadiversity countries: the case of Mexico. BioScience 65(2):164-173.

Sas-Kovács, É.H., and Sas-Kovács, I. 2014. Lycosidae (Arachnida: Araneae) in "Câmpia Careiului" (north-western Romania): preliminary assessment of composition, distribution, habitat preference and conservation. North-West. J. Zool. 10:S102-S114.

Schindler, D.E., and Hilborn, R. 2015. Prediction, precaution, and policy under global change. Science 347(6225):953-954.

Seidler, R.G., Long, R.A., Berger, J., Bergen, S., and Beckmann, J.P. 2015. Identifying impediments to long-distance mammal migrations. Conserv. Biol. 29(1):99-109.

Seis, K., Gärtner, S., Donoso, P.J., and Reif, A. 2014. The effect of small-scale land use on vegetation in the Valdivian Coastal Range (Chile). Community Ecol. 15(2):194-204.

Serio-Silva, J.C., Olguín, E.J., Garcia-Feria, L., Tapia-Fierro, K., and Chapman, C.A. 2015. Cascading impacts of anthropogenically driven habitat loss: deforestation, flooding, and possible lead poisoning in howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra). Primates 56(1):29-35.

Shafer, A.B.A., Wolf, J.B.W., Alves, P.C., Bergström, L., Bruford, M.W., Brännström, I., Colling, G., Dalén, L., De Meester, L., Ekblom, R., Fawcett, K.D., Fior, S., Hajibabaei, M., Hill, J.A., Hoezel, A.R., Höglund, J., Jensen, E.L., Krause, J., Kristensen, T.N., Krützen, M., McKay, J.K., Norman, A.J., Ogden, R., Österling, E.M., Ouborg, N.J., Piccolo, J., Popović, D., Primmer, C.R., Reed, F.A., Roumet, M., Salmona, J., Schenekar, T., Schwartz, M.K., Segelbacher, G., Senn, H., Thaulow, J., Valtonen, M., Veale, A., Vergeer, P., Vijay, N., Vilà, C., Weissensteiner, M., Wennerström, L., Wheat, C.W., and Zieliński, P. 2015. Genomics and the challenging translation into conservation practice. Trends Ecol. Evol. 30(2):78-87.

Shoemaker, K.T., and Akçakaya, H.R. 2015. Inferring the nature of anthropogenic threats from long-term abundance records. Conserv. Biol. 29(1):238-249.

Sieracki, J.L., Bossenbroek, J.M., and Chadderton, W.L. 2014. A spatial modeling approach to predicting the secondary spread of invasive species due to ballast water discharge. PLoS ONE 9(12):e114217.

Silva, M.S., Martins, R.P., and Ferreira, R.L. 2015. Cave conservation priority index to adopt a rapid protection strategy: a case study in Brazilian Atlantic rain forest. Environ. Manage. 55(2):279-295.

Smith, T.B., Kinnison, M.T., Strauss, S.Y., Fuller, T.L., and Carroll, S.P. 2014. Prescriptive evolution to conserve and manage biodiversity. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. S. 45:1-22.

Smolensky, N., Hurtado, L., and Fitzgerald, L. 2015. DNA barcoding of Cameroon samples enhances our knowledge on the distributional limits of putative species of Osteolaemus (African dwarf crocodiles). Conserv. Genet. 16(1):235-240.

Snow, N.P., Porter, W.F., and Williams, D.M. 2015. Underreporting of wildlife-vehicle collisions does not hinder predictive models for large ungulates. Biol. Conserv. 181:44-53.

Snyder, B.F. 2015. Solving conservation's money problems. Conserv. Biol. 29(1):1-2.

Sobral, F.L., Jardim, L., Lemes, P., Machado, N., Loyola, R., and Cianciaruso, M.V. 2014. Spatial conservation priorities for top predators reveal mismatches among taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity. Nat. Conservacao 12(2):150-155.

Sonsthagen, S., Tibbitts, T., Gill, R., Williams, I., and Talbot, S. 2015. Spatial genetic structure of bristle-thighed curlews (Numenius tahitiensis): breeding area differentiation not reflected on the non-breeding grounds. Conserv. Genet. 16(1):223-233.

Soubeyran, Y., Meyer, J.Y., Lebouvier, M., De Thoisy, B., Lavergne, C., Urtizberea, F., and Kirchner, F. 2015. Dealing with invasive alien species in the French overseas territories: results and benefits of a 7-year Initiative. Biol. Invasions 17(2):545-554.

Souza, D.C.L., Silva-Mann, R., and Melo, M.F.D. 2014. Indicators of sustainability for genetic conservation of Erythrina velutina Willd., in riparian forest area. Rev. Arvore 38(6):1103-1113.

Stanbury, M., and Briskie, J.V. 2015. I smell a rat: can New Zealand birds recognize the odor of an invasive mammalian predator? Curr. Zool. 61(1):34-41.

Stanley, C.Q., McKinnon, E.A., Fraser, K.C., Macpherson, M.P., Casbourn, G., Friesen, L., Marra, P.P., Studds, C., Ryder, T.B., Diggs, N.E., and Stutchbury, B.J.M. 2015. Connectivity of wood thrush breeding, wintering, and migration sites based on range-wide tracking. Conserv. Biol. 29(1):164-174.

Stralberg, D., Matsuoka, S.M., Hamann, A., Bayne, E.M., Sólymos, P., Schmiegelow, F.K.A., Wang, X., Cumming, S.G., and Song, S.J. 2015. Projecting boreal bird responses to climate change: the signal exceeds the noise. Ecol. Appl. 25(1):52-69.

Sullivan, B.K., Nowak, E.M., and Kwiatkowski, M.A. 2015. Problems with mitigation translocation of herpetofauna. Conserv. Biol. 29(1):12-18.

Sun, R., Zheng, Y., Lei, T., and Cui, G. 2014. An assessment of wetland nature reserves and the protection of China's vertebrate diversity. Anim. Biodivers. Conserv. 37(2):217-225.

Sutcliffe, L.M.E., Batáry, P., Becker, T., Orci, K.M., and Leuschner, C. 2015. Both local and landscape factors determine plant and Orthoptera diversity in the semi-natural grasslands of Transylvania, Romania. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(2):229-245.

Sutton, W.B., Barrett, K., Moody, A.T., Loftin, C.S., deMaynadier, P.G., and Nanjappa, P. 2015. Predicted changes in climatic niche and climate refugia of conservation priority salamander species in the northeastern United States. Forests 6(1):1-26.

Symes, C.T. 2014. Founder populations and the current status of exotic parrots in South Africa. Ostrich 85(3):235-244.

Tabak, M.A., Poncet, S., Passfield, K., Carling, M.D., and del Rio, C.M. 2015. The relationship between distance and genetic similarity among invasive rat populations in the Falkland Islands. Conserv. Genet. 16(1):125-135.

Taucce, P.P.G., Pinheiro, P.D.P., Leite, F.S.F., and Garcia, P.C.A. 2015. Advertisement call and morphological variation of the poorly known and endemic Bokermannohyla juiju Faivovich, Lugli, Lourenço and Haddad, 2009 (Anura: Hylidae) from Central Bahia, Brazil. Zootaxa 3915(1):99-110.

Taylor, G., Scharlemann, J.P.W., Rowcliffe, M., Kumpel, N., Harfoot, M.B.J., Fa, J.E., Melisch, R., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Bhagwat, S., Abernethy, K.A., Ajonina, A.S., Albrechtsen, L., Allebone-Webb, S., Brown, E., Brugiere, D., Clark, C., Colell, M., Cowlishaw, G., Crookes, D., De Merode, E., Dupain, J., East, T., Edderai, D., Elkan, P., Gill, D., Greengrass, E., Hodgkinson, C., Ilambu, O., Jeanmart, P., Juste, J., Linder, J.M., Macdonald, D.W., Noss, A.J., Okorie, P.U., Okouyi, V.J.J., Pallier, S., Poulsen, J.R., Riddell, M., Schleicher, J., Schulte-Herbruutiggen, B., Starkey, M., van Vliet, N., Whitham, C., Willcox, A.S., Wilkie, D.S., Wright, J.H., and Coad, L.M. 2015. Synthesising bushmeat research effort in West and Central Africa: a new regional database. Biol. Conserv. 181:199-205.

te Beest, M., Esler, K.J., and Richardson, D.M. 2015. Linking functional traits to impacts of invasive plant species: a case study. Plant Ecol. 216(2):293-305.

Tepedino, V.J., Durham, S., Cameron, S.A., and Goodell, K. 2015. Documenting bee decline or squandering scarce resources. Conserv. Biol. 29(1):280-282.

terHorst, C.P., and Lau, J.A. 2015. Genetic variation in invasive species response to direct and indirect species interactions. Biol. Invasions 17(2):651-659.

Theobald, E.J., Ettinger, A.K., Burgess, H.K., DeBey, L.B., Schmidt, N.R., Froehlich, H.E., Wagner, C., HilleRisLambers, J., Tewksbury, J., Harsch, M.A., and Parrish, J.K. 2015. Global change and local solutions: tapping the unrealized potential of citizen science for biodiversity research. Biol. Conserv. 181:236-244.

Thiébaut, G., and Martinez, L. 2015. An exotic macrophyte bed may facilitate the anchorage of exotic propagules during the first stage of invasion. Hydrobiologia 746(1):183-196.

Thomaz, S.M., Kovalenko, K.E., Havel, J.E., and Kats, L.B. 2015. Aquatic invasive species: general trends in the literature and introduction to the special issue. Hydrobiologia 746(1):1-12.

Thomaz, S.M., Mormul, R.P., and Michelan, T.S. 2015. Propagule pressure, invasibility of freshwater ecosystems by macrophytes and their ecological impacts: a review of tropical freshwater ecosystems. Hydrobiologia 746(1):39-59.

Tidd, A.N., Vermard, Y., Marchal, P., Pinnegar, J., Blanchard, J.L., and Milner-Gulland, E.J. 2015. Fishing for space: fine-scale multi-sector maritime activities influence fisher location choice. PLoS ONE 10(1):e0116335.

Tilman, D., Isbell, F., and Cowles, J.M. 2014. Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. S. 45:471-493.

Toivonen, M., Herzon, I., and Kuussaari, M. 2015. Differing effects of fallow type and landscape structure on the occurrence of plants, pollinators and birds on environmental fallows in Finland. Biol. Conserv. 181:36-43.

Tranquilli, S., Abedi-Lartey, M., Abernethy, K., Amsini, F., Asamoah, A., Balangtaa, C., Blake, S., Bouanga, E., Breuer, T., Brncic, T.M., Campbell, G., Chancellor, R., Chapman, C.A., Davenport, T.R.B., Dunn, A., Dupain, J., Ekobo, A., Eno-Nku, M., Etoga, G., Furuichi, T., Gatti, S., Ghiurghi, A., Hashimoto, C., Hart, J.A., Head, J., Hega, M., Herbinger, I., Hicks, T.C., Holbech, L.H., Huijbregts, B., Kuhl, H.S., Imong, I., Yeno, S.L.D., Linder, J., Marshall, P., Lero, P.M., Morgan, D., Mubalama, L., N'Goran, P.K., Nicholas, A., Nixon, S., Normand, E., Nziguyimpa, L., Nzooh-Dongmo, Z., Ofori-Amanfo, R., Ogunjemite, B.G., Petre, C.A., Rainey, H.J., Regnaut, S., Robinson, O., Rundus, A., Sanz, C.M., Okon, D.T., Todd, A., Warren, Y., and Sommer, V. 2014. Protected areas in tropical Africa: assessing threats and conservation activities. PLoS ONE 9(12):e114154.

Trathan, P.N., García-Borboroglu, P., Boersma, D., Bost, C.A., Crawford, R.J.M., Crossin, G.T., Cuthbert, R.J., Dann, P., Davis, L.S., De La Puente, S., Ellenberg, U., Lynch, H.J., Mattern, T., Pütz, K., Seddon, P.J., Trivelpiece, W., and Wienecke, B. 2015. Pollution, habitat loss, fishing, and climate change as critical threats to penguins. Conserv. Biol. 29(1):31-41.

Traveset, A., and Richardson, D.M. 2014. Mutualistic interactions and biological invasions. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. S. 45:89-113.

Tsuyama, I., Higa, M., Nakao, K., Matsui, T., Horikawa, M., and Tanaka, N. 2015. How will subalpine conifer distributions be affected by climate change? Impact assessment for spatial conservation planning. Reg. Environ. Change 15(2):393-404.

Vale, V.S., Schiavini, I., Araújo, G.M., Gussons, A.E., Lopes, S.F., Oliveira, A.P., Prado, J.A., Arantes, C.S., and Dias-Neto, O.C. 2015. Effects of reduced water flow in a riparian forest community: a conservation approach. J. Trop. For. Sci. 27(1):13-24.

Valls, A., Coll, M., and Christensen, V. 2015. Keystone species: toward an operational concept for marine biodiversity conservation. Ecol. Monogr. 85(1):29-47.

van Andel, T.R., Croft, S., van Loon, E.E., Quiroz, D., Towns, A.M., and Raes, N. 2015. Prioritizing West African medicinal plants for conservation and sustainable extraction studies based on market surveys and species distribution models. Biol. Conserv. 181:173-181.

van Klinken, R.D., Panetta, F.D., Coutts, S., and Simon, B.K. 2015. Learning from the past to predict the future: an historical analysis of grass invasions in northern Australia. Biol. Invasions 17(2):565-579.

van Rijn, I., Neeson, T.M., and Mandelik, Y. 2015. Reliability and refinement of the higher taxa approach for bee richness and composition assessments. Ecol. Appl. 25(1):88-98.

Vasudev, D., and Fletcher, R.J. 2015. Incorporating movement behavior into conservation prioritization in fragmented landscapes: an example of western hoolock gibbons in Garo Hills, India. Biol. Conserv. 181:124-132.

Veale, A.J., Gleeson, D.M., and Clout, M.N. 2014. Measuring connectivity of invasive stoat populations to inform conservation management. Wildlife Res. 41(5):395-406.

Vilchis, L.I., Johnson, C.K., Evenson, J.R., Pearson, S.F., Barry, K.L., Davidson, P., Raphael, M.G., and Gaydos, J.K. 2015. Assessing ecological correlates of marine bird declines to inform marine conservation. Conserv. Biol. 29(1):154-163.

Villéger, S., Blanchet, S., Beauchard, O., Oberdorff, T., and Brosse, S. 2015. From current distinctiveness to future homogenization of the world's freshwater fish faunas. Divers. Distrib. 21(2):223-235.

von Wehrden, H., Wesche, K., Chuluunkhuyag, O., and Fust, P. 2015. Correlation of trends in cashmere production and declines of large wild mammals: response to Berger et al. 2013. Conserv. Biol. 29(1):286-289.

Walsh, J.C., Dicks, L.V., and Sutherland, W.J. 2015. The effect of scientific evidence on conservation practitioners' management decisions. Conserv. Biol. 29(1):88-98.

Watson, F.G.R., Becker, M.S., Milanzi, J., and Nyirenda, M. 2015. Human encroachment into protected area networks in Zambia: implications for large carnivore conservation. Reg. Environ. Change 15(2):415-429.

Wee, A.K.S., Low, S.Y., and Webb, E.L. 2015. Pollen limitation affects reproductive outcome in the bird-pollinated mangrove Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (Lam.) in a highly urbanized environment. Aquat. Bot. 120:240-243.

Werenkraut, V., Fergnani, P.N., and Ruggiero, A. 2015. Ants at the edge: a sharp forest-steppe boundary influences the taxonomic and functional organization of ant species assemblages along elevational gradients in northwestern Patagonia (Argentina). Biodivers. Conserv. 24(2):287-308.

White, P.J.C., Warren, P., and Baines, D. 2015. Habitat use by Black Grouse Tetrao tetrix in a mixed moorland-forest landscape in Scotland and implications for a national afforestation strategy. Bird Study 62(1):1-13.

Whittington, J., Heuer, K., Hunt, B., Hebblewhite, M., and Lukacs, P.M. 2015. Estimating occupancy using spatially and temporally replicated snow surveys. Anim. Conserv. 18(1):92-101.

Wilcox, C., Heathcote, G., Goldberg, J., Gunn, R., Peel, D., and Hardesty, B.D. 2015. Understanding the sources and effects of abandoned, lost, and discarded fishing gear on marine turtles in northern Australia. Conserv. Biol. 29(1):198-206.

Williams, J.L., Pierce, S.J., Fuentes, M.M.P.B., and Hamann, M. 2015. Effectiveness of recreational divers for monitoring sea turtle populations. Endang. Species Res. 26(3):209-219.

Williams, S.J., and Gordon, H.L. 2015. Paradigms and progress in conservation science. Conserv. Biol. 29(1):3-4.

Wittmann, M.E., Cooke, R.M., Rothlisberger, J.D., Rutherford, E.S., Zhang, H., Mason, D.M., and Lodge, D.M. 2015. Use of structured expert judgment to forecast invasions by bighead and silver carp in Lake Erie. Conserv. Biol. 29(1):187-197.

Wolf, S., Hartl, B., Carroll, C., Neel, M.C., and Greenwald, D.N. 2015. Beyond PVA: why recovery under the Endangered Species Act is more than population viability. BioScience 65(2):200-207.

Yamashita, S., Hattori, T., Lee, S.S., and Okabe, K. 2015. Estimating the diversity of wood-decaying polypores in tropical lowland rain forests in Malaysia: the effect of sampling strategy. Biodivers. Conserv. 24(2):393-406.

Yelenik, S.G., DiManno, N., and D'Antonio, C.M. 2015. Evaluating nurse plants for restoring native woody species to degraded subtropical woodlands. Ecol. Evol. 5(2):300-313.

Young, H.S., Maxwell, S.M., Conners, M.G., and Shaffer, S.A. 2015. Pelagic marine protected areas protect foraging habitat for multiple breeding seabirds in the central Pacific. Biol. Conserv. 181:226-235.

Young, L., and Schlesinger, C. 2014. Habitat use and behaviour of birds in areas invaded by buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris L.) and in restored habitat. Wildlife Res. 41(5):379-394.

Zhang, Z.J., Yan, Y.J., Tian, Y., Li, J.S., He, J.S., and Tang, Z.Y. 2015. Distribution and conservation of orchid species richness in China. Biol. Conserv. 181:64-72.

Zheng, G., Li, S.Q., and Yang, X.D. 2015. Spider diversity in canopies of Xishuangbanna rainforest (China) indicates an alarming juggernaut effect of rubber plantations. Forest Ecol. Manag. 338:200-207.

Zhong, L.S., Buckley, R.C., Wardle, C., and Wang, L.G. 2015. Environmental and visitor management in a thousand protected areas in China. Biol. Conserv. 181:219-225.

Zhou, Y., Liu, X.J., Liu, B.J., Liu, P., Wang, F., Zhang, X.M., and Yang, H.S. 2015. Unusual pattern in characteristics of the eelgrass Zostera marina L. in a shallow lagoon (Swan Lake), north China: implications on the importance of seagrass conservation. Aquat. Bot. 120:178-184.


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