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Department ofBotany



No. 272
August 2007


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In This Issue


Hunting Hurts Tropical Forests


Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) scientist S. Joseph Wright and collaborators Kathryn E. Stoner, Noelle Beckman, Richard T. Corlett, Rodolfo Dirzo, Helene C. Muller-Landau, Gabriela Nuñez-Iturri, Carlos A. Peres and Benjamin C. Wang, edited a special section in the new issue of Biotropica (vol. 39, no. 3; 2007), "Pervasive Consequences of Hunting for Tropical Forests," gathering 11 articles by STRI authors and colleagues from universities and research centers in Australia, Belgica, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, France, Germany, Mexico, Panama, UK and US.

In this special section the authors present articles that address the bushmeat or wild meat crisis, its direct impact on game species, and its indirect impact on plants in tropical forests. They address both the plight of large, charismatic animals in tropical forests and the consequences for the structure, dynamics, and species composition of tropical forest plant communities.

"Tropical forests harbor an unmatched diversity of large, charismatic animals. These include birds of paradise, curassows, eagles, fruit pigeons, hornbills, parrots, tinamous, toucans and trumpeters among birds and anteaters, cats, civets, deer, elephants, flying foxes, giant armadillos, okapis, olingos, pangolins, peccaries, primates, sloths, and tapirs among mammals. These and many other large animals have inhabited tropical forests for millions of years, and their ecological interactions with one another, with smaller animals, and with plants help to shape those forests."

A wide range of human activities threatens many species that live in tropical forests, but hunters who seek out large species for their meat and charismatic species for their hides, ornaments, and supposed medicinal value pose a particularly acute problem. Many species have been extirpated or persist only at greatly reduced abundances in otherwise intact tropical forests, where their ecological roles either go unfilled or are taken over by smaller species.


Field Stations


The Osa Biodiversity Center, OBC, which opened its doors to scientists and student groups in January 2007, is a nonprofit research, teaching, and training facility in Costa Rica's Osa Peninsula. The center is run by Friends of the Osa <http://www.osaconservation.org> and is located in the heart of a 2,000 hectare Osa National Wildlife Refuge. The OBC itself includes 1,000 hectares owned and managed directly by Friends of the Osa.

Primary and secondary-growth forest habitats as well as freshwater and marine ecosystems are all accessible via a short walk along the OBC's extensive trail network. Wildlife is abundant -- four species of monkey, scarlet macaws, and many large keystone mammals including tapir, peccary, and large cats are regularly sighted on the property.

The OBC can host up to 25 people in its three houses, each of which includes a kitchenette, bathing facilities and 3 bedrooms. There is also a spacious laboratory with a secure storage room and space for meetings, as well as a dining facility where group meals are prepared. A solar panel array provides lighting and power for electronic equipment, and a satellite system affords high-speed access to the internet.

Friends of the Osa is an international nonprofit organization with offices in Puerto Jimenez, Costa Rica, and Washington, DC. Friends of the Osa is committed to the conservation of terrestrial and marine biodiversity in Costa Rica's Osa Peninsula.


Current Literature


Aldridge, C.L., and Boyce, M.S. 2007. Linking occurrence and fitness to persistence: habitat-based approach for endangered Greater Sage-Grouse. Ecol. Appl. 17(2):508-526.

Ale, S.B., Yonzon, P., and Thapa, K. 2007. Recovery of snow leopard Uncia uncia in Sagarmatha (Mount Everest) National Park, Nepal. Oryx 41(1):89-92.

Altamirano, A., Echeverria, C., and Lara, A. 2007. Effect of forest fragmentation on vegetation structure of Legrandia concinna (Myrtaceae) threatened populations in south-central Chile. Rev. Chil. Hist. Nat. 80(1):27-42.

Anderson, J., Rowcliffe, J.M., and Cowlishaw, G. 2007. Does the matrix matter? A forest primate in a complex agricultural landscape. Biol. Conserv. 135(2):212-222.

Banks, C. 2007. Australia supports tree kangaroo conservation in Papua New Guinea. Oryx 41(1):15-16.

Batáry, P., Báldi, A., and Erdos, S. 2007. The effects of using different species conservation priority lists on the evaluation of habitat importance within Hungarian grasslands. Bird Conserv. Int. 17(1):35-43.

Bayliss, J., Makungwa, S., Hecht, J., Nangoma, D., and Bruessow, C. 2007. Saving the island in the sky: the plight of the Mount Mulanje cedar Widdringtonia whytei in Malawi. Oryx 41(1):64-69.

Beckman, N.G., and Muller-Landau, H.C. 2007. Differential effects of hunting on pre-dispersal seed predation and primary and secondary seed removal of two neotropical tree species. Biotropica 39(3):328-339.

Behling, H., Pillar, V.D., Müller, S.C., and Overbeck, G.E. 2007. Late-Holocene fire history in a forest-grassland mosaic in southern Brasil: implications for conservation. Appl. Veg. Sci. 10(1):81-90.

Beissinger, S.R., and Peery, M.Z. 2007. Reconstructing the historic demography of an endangered seabird. Ecology 88(2):296-305.

Belinchón, R., Martínez, I., Escudero, A., Aragón, G., and Valladares, F. 2007. Edge effects on epiphytic communities in a Mediterranean Quercus pyrenaica forest. J. Veg. Sci. 18(1):81-90.

Benson, J.F., and Chamberlain, M.J. 2007. Space use and habitat selection by female Louisiana black bears in the Tensas River Basin of Louisiana. J. Wildlife Manag. 71(1):117-126.

Bhagabati, N.K. 2007. Conservation research in India. Front. Ecol. Environ. 5(3):123.

Bianchi, C.N. 2007. Biodiversity issues for the forthcoming tropical Mediterranean Sea. Hydrobiologia 580:7-21.

Bisht, S., and Ghildiyal, J.C. 2007. Sacred groves for biodiversity conservation in Uttarakhand Himalaya. Curr. Sci. 92(6):711-712.

Björn, L.O. 2007. Stratospheric ozone, ultraviolet radiation, and cryptogams. Biol. Conserv. 135(3):326-333.

Blake, S., Strindberg, S., Boudjan, P., Makombo, C., Bila-Isia, I., Ilambu, O., Grossmann, F., Bene-Bene, L., de Semboli, B., Mbenzo, V., S'hwa, D., Bayogo, R., Williamson, L., Fay, M., Hart, J., and Maisels, F. 2007. Forest elephant crisis in the Congo Basin. PLoS Biol. 5(4):945-953.

Blundell, A.G. 2007. Implementing CITES regulations for timber. Ecol. Appl. 17(2):323-330.

Briggs, J.C. 2007. Biodiversity loss in the ocean: how bad is it? Science 316(5829):1282.

Brosi, B.J., Daily, G.C., and Ehrlich, P.R. 2007. Bee community shifts with landscape context in a tropical countryside. Ecol. Appl. 17(2):418-430.

Buij, R., McShea, W.J., Campbell, P., Lee, M.E., Dallmeier, F., Guimondou, S., Mackaga, L., Guisseougou, N., Mboumba, S., Hines, J.E., Nichols, J.D., and Alonso, A. 2007. Patch-occupancy models indicate human activity as major determinant of forest elephant Loxodonta cyclotis seasonal distribution in an industrial corridor in Gabon. Biol. Conserv. 135(2):189-201.

Burnett, K.M., Reeves, G.H., Miller, D.J., Clarke, S., Vance-Borland, K., and Christiansen, K. 2007. Distribution of salmon-habitat potential relative to landscape characteristics and implications for conservation. Ecol. Appl. 17(1):66-80.

Ceballos, G. 2007. Conservation priorities for mammals in megadiverse Mexico: the efficiency of reserve networks. Ecol. Appl. 17(2):569-578.

Chabrerie, O., Roulier, F., Hoeblich, H., Sebert-Cuvillier, E., Closset-Kopp, D., Leblanc, I., Jaminon, J., and Decocq, G. 2007. Defining patch mosaic functional types to predict invasion patterns in a forest landscape. Ecol. Appl. 17(2):464-481.

Chambers, J.C., Roundy, B.A., Blank, R.R., Meyer, S.E., and Whittaker, A. 2007. What makes Great Basin sagebrush ecosystems invasible by Bromus tectorum? Ecol. Monogr. 77(1):117-145.

Cheung, W.W.L., Watson, R., Morato, T., Pitcher, T.J., and Pauly, D. 2007. Intrinsic vulnerability in the global fish catch. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 333:1-12.

Ciannelli, L., Dingsør, G.E., Bogstad, B., Ottersen, G., Chan, K.S., Gjøsaeter, H., Stiansen, J.E., and Stenseth, N.C. 2007. Spatial anatomy of species survival: effects of predation and climate-driven environmental variability. Ecology 88(3):635-646.

Clements, D.R., Krannitz, P.G., and Gillespie, S.M. 2007. Seed bank responses to grazing history by invasive and native plant species in a semi-desert shrub-steppe environment. Northwest Sci. 81(1):37-49.

Cole, C.J., Painter, C.W., Dessauer, H.C., and Taylor, H.L. 2007. Hybridization between the endangered unisexual gray-checkered whiptail lizard (Aspidoscelis dixoni) and the bisexual western whiptail lizard (Aspidoscelis tigris) in southwestern New Mexico. Am. Mus. Novit. 3555:1-31.

Cooper, C.B., Hochachka, W.M., and Dhondt, A.A. 2007. Contrasting natural experiments confirm competition between house finches and house sparrows. Ecology 88(4):864-870.

Cordell, J.R., Rasmussen, M., and Bollens, S.M. 2007. Biology of the introduced copepod Pseudodiaptomus inopinus in a northeast Pacific estuary. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 333:213-227.

Corlett, R.T. 2007. The impact of hunting on the mammalian fauna of tropical Asian forests. Biotropica 39(3):292-303.

Craig, M.D. 2007. The ecology of the rufous treecreeper in the jarrah forest of south-western Australia and implications for its conservation and management. Aust. J. Zool. 55(1):41-48.

Cronin, M.A. 2007. Limitations of molecular genetics in conservation. Nature 447(7145):638.

Cunningham, R.B., Lindenmayer, D.B., Crane, M., Michael, D., and MacGregor, C. 2007. Reptile and arboreal marsupial response to replanted vegetation in agricultural landscapes. Ecol. Appl. 17(2):609-619.

Davidson, C., and Knapp, R.A. 2007. Multiple stressors and amphibian declines: dual impacts of pesticides and fish on yellow-legged frogs. Ecol. Appl. 17(2):587-597.

de la Morena, E.L.G., Morales, M.B., De Juana, E., and Suárez, F. 2007. Surveys of wintering Little Bustards Tetrax tetrax in central Spain: distribution and population estimates at a regional scale. Bird Conserv. Int. 17(1):23-34.

de Leaniz, C.G., Fleming, I.A., Einum, S., Verspoor, E., Jordan, W.C., Consuegra, S., Aubin-Horth, N., Lajus, D., Letcher, B.H., Youngson, A.F., Webb, J.H., Vøllestad, L.A., Villanueva, B., Ferguson, A., and Quinn, T.P. 2007. A critical review of adaptive genetic variation in Atlantic salmon: implications for conservation. Biol. Rev. 82(2):173-211.

De Roeck, E.R., Vanschoenwinkel, B.J., Day, J.A., Xu, Y.X., Raitt, L., and Brendonck, L. 2007. Conservation status of large branchiopods in the Western Cape, South Africa. Wetlands 27(1):162-173.

Delany, M.F., Shumar, M.B., McDermott, M.E., Kubilis, P.S., Hatchitt, J.L., and Rivero, R.G. 2007. Florida Grasshopper Sparrow distribution, abundance, and habitat availability. Southeast. Nat. 6(1):15-26.

Denoel, M., and Ficetola, G.F. 2007. Landscape-level thresholds and newt conservation. Ecol. Appl. 17(1):302-309.

Dever, J.A. 2007. Fine-scale genetic structure in the threatened Foothill Yellow-Legged Frog (Rana boylii). J. Herpetol. 41(1):168-173.

Dijkstra, K.D.B., Samways, M.J., and Simaika, J.P. 2007. Two new relict Syncordulia species found during museum and field studies of threatened dragonflies in the Cape Floristic Region (Odonata: Corduliidae). Zootaxa 1467:19-34.

Dirzo, R., Mendoza, E., and Ortiz, P. 2007. Size-related differential seed predation in a heavily defaunated neotropical rain forest. Biotropica 39(3):355-362.

DiVittorio, C.T., Corbin, J.D., and D'Antonio, C.M. 2007. Spatial and temporal patterns of seed dispersal: an important determinant of grassland invasion. Ecol. Appl. 17(2):311-316.

dos Santos, K., Kinoshita, L.S., and dos Santos, F.A.M. 2007. Tree species composition and similarity in semideciduous forest fragments of southeastern Brazil. Biol. Conserv. 135(2):268-277.

Duigan, C., Kovach, W., and Palmer, M. 2007. Vegetation communities of British lakes: a revised classification scheme for conservation. Aquat. Conserv. 17(2):147-173.

Dynesius, M., and Hylander, K. 2007. Resilience of bryophyte communities to clear-cutting of boreal stream-side forests. Biol. Conserv. 135(3):423-434.

Early, R., and Thomas, C.D. 2007. Multispecies conservation planning: identifying landscapes for the conservation of viable populations using local and continental species priorities. J. Appl. Ecol. 44(2):253-262.

Edenius, L., and Ericsson, G. 2007. Aspen demographics in relation to spatial context and ungulate browsing: implications for conservation and forest management. Biol. Conserv. 135(2):293-301.

Ekrt, L., Lepsi, M., Boublik, K., and Lepsi, P. 2007. Dryopteris remota rediscovered for the flora of the Czech Republic. Preslia 79(1):69-82.

El-Keblawy, A., and Al-Rawai, A. 2007. Impacts of the invasive exotic Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC on the native flora and soils of the UAE. Plant Ecol. 190(1):23-35.

Ellis, C.J., Coppins, B.J., and Dawson, T.P. 2007. Predicted response of the lichen epiphyte Lecanora populicola to climate change scenarios in a clean-air region of Northern Britain. Biol. Conserv. 135(3):396-404.

Ellis, M.M., and Elphick, C.S. 2007. Using a stochastic model to examine the ecological, economic and ethical consequences of population control in a charismatic invasive species: mute swans in North America. J. Appl. Ecol. 44(2):312-322.

Emery, S.M., and Gross, K.L. 2007. Dominant species identity, not community evenness, regulates invasion in experimental grassland plant communities. Ecology 88(4):954-964.

Eppstein, M.J., and Molofsky, J. 2007. Invasiveness in plant communities with feedbacks. Ecol. Lett. 10(4):253-263.

Evans, K.L., Greenwood, J.J.D., and Gaston, K.J. 2007. The positive correlation between avian species richness and human population density in Britain is not attributable to sampling bias. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 16(3):300-304.

Fahd, K., Florencio, M., Keller, C., and Serrano, L. 2007. The effect of the sampling scale on zooplankton community assessment and its implications for the conservation of temporary ponds in south-west Spain. Aquat. Conserv. 17(2):175-193.

Fairfax, R., Fensham, R., Wager, R., Brooks, S., Webb, A., and Unmack, P. 2007. Recovery of the red-finned blue-eye: an endangered fish from springs of the Great Artesian Basin. Wildlife Res. 34(2):156-166.

Ficetola, G.F., Sacchi, R., Scali, S., Gentilli, A., De Bernardi, F., and Galeotti, P. 2007. Vertebrates respond differently to human disturbance: implications for the use of a focal species approach. Acta Oecol. 31(1):109-118.

Fischer, A., and van der Wal, R. 2007. Invasive plant suppresses charismatic seabir - the construction of attitudes towards biodiversity management options. Biol. Conserv. 135(2):256-267.

Fischer, J., and Lindenmayer, D.B. 2007. Landscape modification and habitat fragmentation: a synthesis. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 16(3):265-280.

Fitzpatrick, B.M., and Shaffer, H.B. 2007. Introduction history and habitat variation explain the landscape genetics of hybrid tiger salamanders. Ecol. Appl. 17(2):598-608.

Foster, M.S. 2007. The potential of fruit trees to enhance converted habitats for migrating birds in southern Mexico. Bird Conserv. Int. 17(1):45-61.

Franco, P., Saavedra-Rodríguez, C.A., and Kattan, G.H. 2007. Bird species diversity captured by protected areas in the Andes of Colombia: a gap analysis. Oryx 41(1):57-63.

Fraser, S.E.M., Dytham, C., and Mayhew, P.J. 2007. Determinants of parasitoid abundance and diversity in woodland habitats. J. Appl. Ecol. 44(2):352-361.

Fridley, J.D., Stachowicz, J.J., Naeem, S., Sax, D.F., Seabloom, E.W., Smith, M.D., Stohlgren, T.J., Tilman, D., and Von Holle, B. 2007. The invasion paradox: reconciling pattern and process in species invasions. Ecology 88(1):3-17.

Garthe, S., and Flore, B.O. 2007. Population trend over 100 years and conservation needs of breeding sandwich terns (Sterna sandvicensis) on the German North Sea coast. J. Ornithol. 148(2):215-227.

Ge, Z.M., Tian-Hou, W.B., Zhou, X., Wang, K.Y., and Shi, W.Y. 2007. Changes in the spatial distribution of migratory shorebirds along the Shanghai shoreline, China, between 1984 and 2004. Emu 107(1):19-27.

Gilbert, M., Watson, R.T., Ahmed, S., Asim, M., and Johnson, J.A. 2007. Vulture restaurants and their role in reducing diclofenac exposure in Asian vultures. Bird Conserv. Int. 17(1):63-77.

Goh, T.Y., and O'Riordan, R.M. 2007. Are tortoises and freshwater turtles still traded illegally as pets in Singapore? Oryx 41(1):97-100.

Gove, B., Power, S.A., Buckley, G.P., and Ghazoul, J. 2007. Effects of herbicide spray drift and fertilizer overspread on selected species of woodland ground flora: comparison between short-term and long-term impact assessments and field surveys. J. Appl. Ecol. 44(2):374-384.

Gubbi, S. 2007. Rights of forest dwellers in India. Oryx 41(1):16.

Gubbi, S., and Heydlauff, A. 2007. Tigers forever. Oryx 41(1):13-14.

Gunnarsson, U., and Söderström, L. 2007. Can artificial introductions of diaspore fragments work as a conservation tool for maintaining populations of the rare peatmoss Sphagnum angermanicum? Biol. Conserv. 135(3):450-458.

Hallingbäck, T. 2007. Working with Swedish cryptogam conservation. Biol. Conserv. 135(3):334-340.

Halpern, B.S., Silliman, B.R., Olden, J.D., Bruno, J.P., and Bertness, M.D. 2007. Incorporating positive interactions in aquatic restoration and conservation. Front. Ecol. Environ. 5(3):153-160.

Hannah, D., Woinarski, J.C.Z., Catterall, C.P., Mccosker, J.C., Thurgate, N.Y., and Fensham, R.J. 2007. Impacts of clearing, fragmentation and disturbance on the bird fauna of Eucalypt savanna woodlands in central Queensland, Australia. Austral Ecol. 32(3):261-276.

Hannah, L., Midgley, G., Andelman, S., Araújo, M., Hughes, G., Martinez-Meyer, E., Pearson, R., and Williams, P. 2007. Protected area needs in a changing climate. Front. Ecol. Environ. 5(3):131-138.

Hare, K.M., Hoare, J.M., and Hitchmough, R.A. 2007. Investigating natural population dynamics of Naultinus manukanus to inform conservation management of New Zealand's cryptic diurnal geckos. J. Herpetol. 41(1):81-93.

Harlow, P.S., Fisher, M., Tuiwawa, M., Biciloa, P.N., Palmeirim, J.M., Mersai, C., Naidu, S., Naikatini, A., Thaman, B., Niukula, J., and Strand, E. 2007. The decline of the endemic Fijian crested iguana Brachylophus vitiensis in the Yasawa and Mamanuca archipelagos, western Fiji. Oryx 41(1):44-50.

Hartman, K.M., and McCarthy, B.C. 2007. A dendro-ecological study of forest overstorey productivity following the invasion of the non-indigenous shrub Lonicera maackii. Appl. Veg. Sci. 10(1):3-14.

He, F.Q., Fellowes, J.R., Chan, B.P.L., Lau, M.W.N., Lin, J.S., and Shing, L.K. 2007. An update on the distribution of the 'endangered' white-eared Night Heron Gorsachius magnificus in China. Bird Conserv. Int. 17(1):93-101.

Hedenås, H., Blomberg, P., and Ericson, L. 2007. Significance of old aspen (Populus tremula) trees for the occurrence of lichen photobionts. Biol. Conserv. 135(3):380-387.

Hedenås, H., and Hedström, P. 2007. Conservation of epiphytic lichens: significance of remnant aspen (Populus tremula) trees in clear-cuts. Biol. Conserv. 135(3):388-395.

Hérault, B., and Honnay, O. 2007. Using life-history traits to achieve a functional classification of habitats. Appl. Veg. Sci. 10(1):73-80.

Hilborn, R.W. 2007. Biodiversity loss in the ocean: how bad is it? Science 316(5829):1281-1282.

Hill, S.L.L., Sayer, C.D., Hammond, P.M., Rimmer, V.K., Davidson, T.A., Hoare, D.J., Burgess, A., and Okamura, B. 2007. Are rare species rare or just overlooked? Assessing the distribution of the freshwater bryozoan, Lophopus crystallinus. Biol. Conserv. 135(2):223-234.

Hogan, L.S., Marschall, E., Folt, C., and Stein, R.A. 2007. How non-native species in Lake Erie influence trophic transfer of mercury and lead to top predators. J. Great Lakes Res. 33(1):46-61.

Hölker, F., Beare, D., Dörner, H., di Natale, A., Rätz, H.J., Temming, A., and Casey, J. 2007. Comment on "Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services". Science 316(5829):U4.

Hovick, S.M., and Reinartz, J.A. 2007. Restoring forest in wetlands dominated by reed canarygrass: the effects of pre-planting treatments on early survival of planted stock. Wetlands 27(1):24-39.

Hoyle, M. 2007. When corridors work: insights from a microecosystem. Ecol. Model. 202(3-4):441-453.

Huste, A., and Boulinier, T. 2007. Determinants of local extinction and turnover rates in urban bird communities. Ecol. Appl. 17(1):168-180.

Hylander, K., and Jonsson, BG. 2007. The conservation ecology of cryptogams. Biol. Conserv. 135(3):311-314.

Ilangakoon, A.D., and Tun, T. 2007. Rediscovering the Dugong (Dugong dugon) in myanmar and capacity building for research and conservation. Raffles Bull. Zool. 55(1):195-199.

Isaak, D.J., Thurow, R.F., Rieman, B.E., and Dunham, J.B. 2007. Chinook salmon use of spawning patches: relative roles of habitat quality, size, and connectivity. Ecol. Appl. 17(2):352-364.

Isermann, M., Diekmann, M., and Heemann, S. 2007. Effects of the expansion by Hippophae rhamnoides on plant species richness in coastal dunes. Appl. Veg. Sci. 10(1):33-42.

Jacobi, S.K., ReVelle, C.S., Pressey, R.L., and Williams, J.C. 2007. Novel operations research methods for efficiently determining irreplaceable sites for conservation. Environ. Model Assess. 12(2):91-103.

Jaenike, J. 2007. Comment on "Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services". Science 316(5829):U1.

Jessop, T.S., Madsen, T., Ciofi, C., Imansyah, M.J., Purwandana, D., Rudiharto, H., Arifiandy, A., and Phillips, J.A. 2007. Island differences in population size structure and catch per unit effort and their conservation implications for Komodo dragons. Biol. Conserv. 135(2):247-255.

Jiménez-Sierra, C., Mandujano, M.C., and Eguiarte, L.E. 2007. Are populations of the candy barrel cactus (Echinocactus platyacanthus) in the desert of Tehuacán, Mexico at risk? Population projection matrix and life table response analysis. Biol. Conserv. 135(2):278-292.

Johnsingh, A.J.T., Goyal, S.P., and Qureshi, Q. 2007. Preparations for the reintroduction of Asiatic lion Panthera leo persica into Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary, Madhya Pradesh, India. Oryx 41(1):93-96.

Johnson, A., and Acevedo-Gutiérrez, A. 2007. Regulation compliance by vessels and disturbance of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina). Can. J. Zool. 85(2):290-294.

Karlson, R.H., Cornell, H.V., and Hughes, T.P. 2007. Aggregation influences coral species richness at multiple spatial scales. Ecology 88(1):170-177.

Kauffman, M.J., Sanjayan, M., Lowenstein, J., Nelson, A., Jeo, R.M., and Crooks, K.R. 2007. Remote camera-trap methods and analyses reveal impacts of rangeland management on Namibian carnivore communities. Oryx 41(1):70-78.

Keller, R.P., and Lodge, D.M. 2007. Species invasions from commerce in live aquatic organisms: problems and possible solutions. BioScience 57(5):428-436.

Kiesecker, J.M., Comendant, T., Grandmason, T., Gray, E., Hall, C., Hilsenbeck, R., Kareiva, P., Lozier, L., Naehu, P., Rissman, A., Shaw, M.R., and Zankel, M. 2007. Conservation casements in context: a quantitative analysis of their use by The Nature Conservancy. Front. Ecol. Environ. 5(3):125-130.

King, T., and Courage, A. 2007. Reintroduced western gorillas reproduce again. Oryx 41(1):14.

Koenig, S.E., Wunderle, J.M., and Enkerlin-Hoeflich, E.C. 2007. Vines and canopy contact: a route for snake predation on parrot nests. Bird Conserv. Int. 17(1):79-91.

Kohler, F., Verhulst, J., Knop, E., Herzog, F., and Kleijn, D. 2007. Indirect effects of grassland extensification schemes on pollinators in two contrasting European countries. Biol. Conserv. 135(2):302-307.

Kohlmann, B., Solis, A., Elle, O., Soto, X., and Russo, R. 2007. Biodiversity, conservation, and hotspot atlas of Costa Rica: a dung beetle perspective (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae). Zootaxa 1457:1-34.

Kong, L.F., Li, Q., and Qiu, Z.X. 2007. Genetic and morphological differentiation in the clam Coelomactra antiquata (Bivalvia: Veneroida) along the coast of China. J. Exp. Marine Biol. Ecol. 343(1):110-117.

Kosior, A., Celary, W., Olejniczak, P., Fijal, J., Król, W., Solarz, W., and Plonka, P. 2007. The decline of the bumble bees and cuckoo bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombini) of Western and Central Europe. Oryx 41(1):79-88.

Kottelat, M., Barbieri, R., and Stoumboudi, M.T. 2007. Aphanius almitiensis, a new species of toothcarp from Greece (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae). Rev. Suisse Zool. 114(1):13-31.

Kremen, C., Williams, N.M., Aizen, M.A., Gemmill-Herren, B., LeBuhn, G., Minckley, R., Packer, L., Potts, S.G., Roulston, T., Steffan-Dewenter, I., Vázquez, D.P., Winfree, R., Adams, L., Crone, E.E., Greenleaf, S.S., Keitt, T.H., Klein, A.M., Regetz, J., and Ricketts, T.H. 2007. Pollination and other ecosystem services produced by mobile organisms: a conceptual framework for the effects of land-use change. Ecol. Lett. 10(4):299-314.

LaDeau, S.L., Kilpatrick, A.M., and Marra, P.P. 2007. West Nile virus emergence and large-scale declines of North American bird populations. Nature 447(7145):710-713.

Lalas, C., Ratz, H., McEwan, K., and McConkey, S.D. 2007. Predation by New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri) as a threat to the viability of yellow-eyed penguins (Megadyptes antipodes) at Otago Peninsula, New Zealand. Biol. Conserv. 135(2):235-246.

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Laporte, N.T., Stabach, J.A., Grosch, R., Lin, T.S., and Goetz, S.J. 2007. Expansion of industrial logging in Central Africa. Science 316(5830):1451.

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Morell, V. 2007. Elephants take center ring at CITES. Science 316(5832):1678-1679.

Muller-Landau, H.C. 2007. Predicting the long-term effects of hunting on plant species composition and diversity in tropical forests. Biotropica 39(3):372-384.

Muotka, T., and Syrjänen, J. 2007. Changes in habitat structure, benthic invertebrate diversity, trout populations and ecosystem processes in restored forest streams: a boreal perspective. Freshwater Biol. 52(4):724-737.

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Negi, P.S., and Hajra, P.K. 2007. Alien flora of Doon Valley, Northwest Himalaya. Curr. Sci. 92(7):968-978.

Nicholson, E., and Possingham, H.P. 2007. Making conservation decisions under uncertainty for the persistence of multiple species. Ecol. Appl. 17(1):251-265.

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Nordén, B., Paltto, H., Götmark, F., and Wallin, K. 2007. Indicators of biodiversity, what do they indicate? - Lessons for conservation of cryptogams in oak-rich forest. Biol. Conserv. 135(3):369-379.

Nuñez-Iturri, G., and Howe, H.F. 2007. Bushmeat and the fate of trees with seeds dispersed by large primates in a lowland rain forest in western Amazonia. Biotropica 39(3):348-354.

Nye, E.R., Dickman, C.R., and Kingsford, R.T. 2007. A wild goose chase-temporal and spatial variation in the distribution of the Magpie Goose (Anseranas semipalmata) in Australia. Emu 107(1):28-37.

O'Hanley, J.R., Church, R.L., and Gilless, J.K. 2007. The importance of in situ site loss in nature reserve selection: balancing notions of complementarity and robustness. Biol. Conserv. 135(2):170-180.

Pangle, K.L., Peacor, S.D., and Johannsson, O.E. 2007. Large nonlethal effects of an invasive invertebrate predator on zooplankton population growth rate. Ecology 88(2):402-412.

Pärtel, M., and Helm, A. 2007. Invasion of woody species into temperate grasslands: relationship with abiotic and biotic soil resource heterogeneity. J. Veg. Sci. 18(1):63-70.

Pattanaik, C., and Reddy, C.S. 2007. Medicinal plant resources of Gandhamardan hill range, Orissa: an urgent need for conservation. Natl. Acad. Sci. Lett. 30(1-2):35-38.

Pellens, R., and Grandcolas, P. 2007. The conservation-refugium value of small and disturbed Brazilian Atlantic forest fragments for the endemic ovoviviparous cockroach Monastria biguttata (Insecta: Dictyoptera, Blaberidae, Blaberinae). Zool. Sci. 24(1):11-19.

Pereira, A.C.S., Borba, E.L., and Giulietti, A.M. 2007. Genetic and morphological variability of the endangered Syngonanthus mucugensis Giul. (Eriocaulaceae) from the Chapada Diamantina, Brazil: implications for conservation and taxonomy. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 153(4):401-416.

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Pharo, E.J., and Zartman, C.E. 2007. Bryophytes in a changing landscape: the hierarchical effects of habitat fragmentation on ecological and evolutionary processes. Biol. Conserv. 135(3):315-325.

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Pinto, M.P., Mathias, P.V.C., Blamires, D., Diniz-Filho, J.A.F., and Bini, L.M. 2007. Selecting priority areas to conserve Psittacines in the Brazilian cerrado: minimizing human-conservation conflicts. Bird Conserv. Int. 17(1):13-22.

Poos, M.S., Mandrak, N.E., and McLaughlin, R.L. 2007. The effectiveness of two common sampling methods for assessing imperilled freshwater fishes. J. Fish Biol. 70(3):691-708.

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Priess, J.A., Mimler, M., Klein, A.M., Schwarze, S., Tscharntke, T., and Steffan-Dewenter, I. 2007. Linking deforestation scenarios to pollination services and economic returns in coffee agroforestry systems. Ecol. Appl. 17(2):407-417.

Prigioni, C., Balestrieri, A., and Remonti, L. 2007. Decline and recovery in otter Lutra lutra populations in Italy. Mammal Rev. 37(1):71-79.

Purohit, V.K., Phondani, P.C., Dhyani, D., Rawat, L.S., and Maikhuri, R.K. 2007. Ginkgo biloba a living fossil: need conservation initiatives. Natl. Acad. Sci. Lett. 30(1-2):31-33.

Radford, I.J., Dickinson, K.J.M., and Lord, J.M. 2007. Functional and performance comparisons of invasive Hieracium lepidulum and co-occurring species in New Zealand. Austral Ecol. 32(3):338-354.

Raghavan, R., Ali, P.H.A., and Prasad, G. 2007. Need for a comprehensive re-assessment of the conservation status of critically endangered (?) freshwater fishes of Kerala. Curr. Sci. 92(6):721-723.

Rao, R.S.P., and Girish, M.K.S. 2007. Road kills: assessing insect casualties using flagship taxon. Curr. Sci. 92(6):830-837.

Rautiainen, P., Björnström, T., Niemelä, M., Arvola, P., Degerman, A., Erävuori, L., Siikamäki, P., Markkola, A., Tuomi, J., and Hyvärinen, M. 2007. Management of three endangered plant species in dynamic Baltic seashore meadows. Appl. Veg. Sci. 10(1):25-32.

Rayner, M.J., Hauber, M.E., and Clout, M.N. 2007. Breeding habitat of the Cook's Petrel (Pterodroma cookii) on Little Barrier Island (Hauturu): implications for the conservation of a New Zealand endemic. Emu 107(1):59-68.

Read, A.J. 2007. Do circle hooks reduce the mortality of sea turtles in pelagic longlines? A review of recent experiments. Biol. Conserv. 135(2):155-169.

Renfrew, R.B., and Saavedra, A.M. 2007. Ecology and conservation of Bobolinks (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) in rice production regions of Bolivia. Ornitolog. Neotrop. 18(1):61-73.

Renner, S.C., Rappole, J.H., Leimgruber, P., Kelly, D.S., Shwe, N.M., Aung, T., and Aung, M. 2007. Land cover in the Northern Forest Complex of Myanmar: new insights for conservation. Oryx 41(1):27-37.

Rivera, L., Politi, N., and Bucher, E.H. 2007. Decline of the Tucumán parrot Amazona tucumana in Argentina: present status and conservation needs. Oryx 41(1):101-105.

Rowat, D. 2007. Occurrence of whale shark (Rhincodon typus) in the Indian Ocean: a case for regional conservation. Fish. Res. 84(1):96-101.

Russell, B.G., and Banks, P.B. 2007. Do Australian small mammals respond to native and introduced predator odours? Austral Ecol. 32(3):277-286.

Russell, F.L., Louda, S.M., Rand, T.A., and Kachman, S.D. 2007. Variation in herbivore-mediated indirect effects of an invasive plant on a native plant. Ecology 88(2):413-423.

Salom-Pérez, R., Carrillo, E., Sáenz, J.C., and Mora, J.M. 2007. Critical condition of the jaguar Panthera onca population in Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica. Oryx 41(1):51-56.

Saltonstall, K., and Stevenson, J.C. 2007. The effect of nutrients on seedling growth of native and introduced Phragmites australis. Aquat. Bot. 86(4):331-336.

Santos, X., Llorente, G.A., Pleguezuelos, J.M., Brito, J.C., Fahd, S., and Parellada, X. 2007. Variation in the diet of the Lataste's viper Vipera latastei in the Iberian Peninsula: seasonal, sexual and size-related effects. Anim. Biol. 57(1):49-61.

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Schmidlin, S., and Baur, B. 2007. Distribution and substrate preference of the invasive clam Corbicula fluminea in the river Rhine in the region of Basel (Switzerland, Germany, France). Aquat. Sci. 69(1):153-161.

Seaman, W. 2007. Artificial habitats and the restoration of degraded marine ecosystems and fisheries. Hydrobiologia 580:143-155.

Seddon, N., and Tobias, J.A. 2007. Population size and habitat associations of the long-tailed ground-roller Uratelornis chimaera. Bird Conserv. Int. 17(1):1-12.

Senapathi, D., Vogiatzakis, I.N., Jeganathan, P., Gill, J.A., Green, R.E., Bowden, C.G.R., Rahmani, A.R., Pain, D., and Norris, K. 2007. Use of remote sensing to measure change in the extent of habitat for the critically endangered Jerdon's Courser Rhinoptilus bitorquatus in India. Ibis 149(2):328-337.

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Sheppard, C. 2007. Marine climate change and conservation priorities. Oryx 41(1):1-2.

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Söderström, L., Séneca, A., and Santos, M. 2007. Rarity patterns in members of the Lophoziaceae/Scapaniaceae complex occurring North of the Tropics - implications for conservation. Biol. Conserv. 135(3):352-359.

Štechová, T., and Kucera, J. 2007. The requirements of the rare moss, Hamatocaulis vernicosus (Calliergonaceae, Musci), in the Czech Republic in relation to vegetation, water chemistry and management. Biol. Conserv. 135(3):443-449.

Stinson, K., Kaufman, S., Durbin, L., and Lowenstein, F. 2007. Impacts of garlic mustard invasion on a forest understory community. Northeastern Nat. 14(1):73-88.

Stokstad, E. 2007. Can the bald eagle still soar after it is delisted? Science 316(5832):1689-1690.

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Van Niel, K.P., and Austin, M.P. 2007. Predictive vegetation modeling for conservation: impact of error propagation from digital elevation data. Ecol. Appl. 17(1):266-280.

Van Wilgen, B.W., Nel, J.L., and Rouget, M. 2007. Invasive alien plants and South African rivers: a proposed approach to the prioritization of control operations. Freshwater Biol. 52(4):711-723.

Vanreusel, W., and Van Dyck, H. 2007. When functional habitat does not match vegetation types: a resource-based approach to map butterfly habitat. Biol. Conserv. 135(2):202-211.

Vellak, K., Vellak, A., and Ingerpuu, N. 2007. Reasons for moss rarity: study in three neighbouring countries. Biol. Conserv. 135(3):360-368.

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Vinyoles, D., and De Sostoa, A. 2007. Life-history traits of the endangered river blenny Salaria fluviatilis (Asso) and their implications for conservation. J. Fish Biol. 70(4):1088-1108.

Virtanen, R., and Oksanen, J. 2007. The effects of habitat connectivity on cryptogam richness in boulder metacommunity. Biol. Conserv. 135(3):415-422.

Walsh, M.G., Dittman, D.E., and O'Gorman, R. 2007. Occurrence and food habits of the round goby in the profundal zone of southwestern Lake Ontario. J. Great Lakes Res. 33(1):83-92.

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Waters, S.S., Aksissou, M., El Harrad, A., Hobbelink, M.E., and Fa, J.E. 2007. Holding on in the Djebela: Barbary macaque Macaca sylvanus in northern Morocco. Oryx 41(1):106-108.

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White, P.J.T., and Kerr, J.T. 2007. Human impacts on environment-diversity relationships: evidence for biotic homogenization from butterfly species richness patterns. Global Ecol. Biogeogr. 16(3):290-299.

Wilberg, M.J., and Miller, T.J. 2007. Comment on "Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services". Science 316(5829):U2-U3.

Wiley, T.R., and Simpfendorfer, C.A. 2007. The ecology of elasmobranchs occurring in the Everglades National Park, Florida: implications for conservation and management. Bull. Mar. Sci. 80(1):171-189.

Wilmers, C.C., Post, E., and Hastings, A. 2007. A perfect storm: the combined effects on population fluctuations of autocorrelated environmental noise, age structure, and density dependence. Am. Nat. 169(5):673-683.

Wittmann, K.J. 2007. Continued massive invasion of Mysidae in the Rhine and Danube river systems, with first records of the order Mysidacea (Crustacea: Malacostraca: Peracarida) for Switzerland. Rev. Suisse Zool. 114(1):65-86.

Wittmer, H.U., McLellan, B.N., Serrouya, R., and Apps, C.D. 2007. Changes in landscape composition influence the decline of a threatened woodland caribou population. J. Anim. Ecol. 76(3):568-579.

Worm, B., Barbier, E.B., Beaumont, N., Duffy, J.E., Folke, C., Halpern, B.S., Jackson, J.B.C., Lotze, H.K., Micheli, F., Palumbi, S.R., Sala, E., Selkoe, K.A., Stachowicz, J.J., and Watson, R. 2007. Biodiversity loss in the ocean: how bad is it? Response. Science 316(5829):1282-1284.

Worm, B., Barbier, E.B., Beaumont, N., Duffy, J.E., Folke, C., Halpern, B.S., Jackson, J.B.C., Lotze, H.K., Micheli, F., Palumbi, S.R., Sala, E., Selkoe, K.A., Stachowicz, J.J., and Watson, R. 2007. Response to comments on "Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services". Science 316(5829):U5-U6.

Wright, J.T., McKenzie, L.A., and Gribben, P.E. 2007. A decline in the abundance and condition of a native bivalve associated with Caulerpa taxifolia invasion. Mar. Freshwater Res. 58(3):263-272.

Wright, S.J., Hernandéz, A., and Condit, R. 2007. The bushmeat harvest alters seedling banks by favoring lianas, large seeds, and seeds dispersed by bats, birds, and wind. Biotropica 39(3):363-371.

Wright, S.J., Stoner, K.E., Beckman, N., Corlett, R.T., Dirzo, R., Muller-Landau, H.C., Nuñez-Iturri, G., Peres, C.A., and Wang, B.C. 2007. The plight of large animals in tropical forests and the consequences for plant regeneration. Biotropica 39(3):289-291.

Zechmeister, H.G., Moser, D., and Milasowszky, N. 2007. Spatial distribution patterns of Rhynchostegium megapolitanum at the landscape scale - an expanding species? Appl. Veg. Sci. 10(1):111-120.


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